What is a titanium flange
What is a titanium flange?
Table of Contents
- What is a titanium flange?
- Types of titanium flanges
- 7. Titanium Orifice flange
- 8. Titanium Socket Weld flange
- 9. Titanium Plate flange
- Size of titanium flange
- Titanium flange Facing Types
- Material of titanium flanges
- Titanium flange Pressure-Temperature Class (Service Rating)
- Standards of titanium flanges
- How to make flanges and forgings step by step?
- Application for titanium flanges
Titanium flange is a part made of non-ferrous metal titanium or titanium alloy to connect pipes with each other, which is connected to the pipe end.
There are holes on the titanium flange, and the bolts connect the two titanium flanges tightly. The titanium flanges are sealed with gaskets. Titanium pipe fittings refer to pipe fittings with flanges (lugs or adapters).
It can be cast, threaded or welded. The flange connection is composed of a pair of titanium flanges, a gasket and several bolts and nuts. The gasket is placed between the two titanium flange sealing surfaces. After tightening the nut, the specific pressure on the gasket surface will deform after reaching a certain value, and fill the uneven parts on the sealing surface to make the connection tight.
A titanium weld neck flange is a type of titanium flange designed to transfer stresses to the pipe to reduce high stress concentrations at the base of the titanium flange. Compared with other types, titanium weld neck flanges are know for their tapered hub and gentle transition from flange thickness to pipe wall thickness. They are deformation-resistant, and are normally used for high pressure piping system, high or low temperature conditions.
The connection is not easy to be deformed, the sealing effect is good, and it is widely used. It is suitable for pipes with large fluctuation of temperature or pressure or pipes with high temperature, high pressure and low temperature. It is also used for pipes conveying expensive medium, inflammable and explosive medium and toxic gas.
The titanium flange with neck butt welding is bulky, cumbersome, expensive and difficult to locate. Therefore, it is easier to bump in transportation.
Titanium Slip on flange is a type of titanium flange which slides over the end of steel piping and then welded in place.Because the pipe slips into the titanium flange before welding,it has a low hub.The inside and outside of the titanium flanges are both welded,resulting in sufficient strengh and no leak. Yaang slip on flanges can be easily fitted and welded into different pipes.It is perfect for lower pressure applications.
It is convenient for welding or easy to process or require strong strength, such as plastic pipes, glass steel pipes and so on.
Easy construction, such as connecting the titanium flange bolt hole corresponding to facilitate the alignment or prevent future replacement of titanium equipment flange bolt hole change.
When the price is high, save money. When the pipe material is special, the titanium flange with the same material is expensive.
Accept low pressure.
The strength of the weld ring is low (especially below 3mm thickness).
A titanium threaded flange is used for special circumstances with their main advantage being that they can be attached to the pipewithout welding. Sometimes a seal weld is also used in conjunction with the threaded connection. This special type of titanium flange is generally used for high pressure piping system, yet smaller diameter applications. Obviously, the larger the titanium flange is, the harder the ability to machine a thread would be.
Compared with titanium flat welding flange or titanium butt welding flange, titanium thread flange has the characteristics of easy installation and maintenance, and can be used in some pipelines which are not allowed to be welded on site. Titanium flange has enough strength, but it is not easy to weld, or welding performance is not good, can also choose titanium thread flange.
It is recommended that no titanium threaded flange be used to avoid leakage when the temperature changes rapidly or the temperature is higher than 260 C below -45 C.
A titanium blind flange is a popular type of titanium pipe flanges.It has no bore in the center,and is primarily used to close the ends of piping systems.This titanium flange premits easy access to a line once it has been sealed.It sometimes can be machined to accept a nominal sizes pipe to which a threaded or welded reduction is being made. Yaang titanium blind flanges are available in various sizes and material for you to choose from.
A titanium spectacle blind – also known as a titanium figure-8 blind – is generally a piece of metal that is cut to fit between two titanium pipe flange and usually sandwiched between two gaskets. A spectacle blind is often made from two metal discs that are attached to each other by a small section of steel. The shape is similar to a pair of glasses or “spectacles” – hence the name spectacle blind. One end of the blind will have an opening to allow flow through the pipe during operation and the other end is solid to block flow during maintenance. They are generally installed as a permanent device to separate process piping systems.
6. Titanium Integral flange (Titanium Long Weld Neck flange)
A titanium Integral flange which is also called titanium long weld neck flange (LWN flange), is used for high pressure situations, titanium integral hub weld neck flanges are used and for very high pressure cases titanium long welding neck flanges are preferred. In this case, the weld are far from the ring to avoid bending stresses and weld stress being combined.
Titanium orifice flanges are used with orifice meters for the purpose of measuring the flow rate of either liquids or gases in the respective pipeline. Titanium orifice flanges generally come with either raised faces or RTJ (Ring Type Joint) facings.They are,for all intensive purposes,the same as titanium weld neck and slip-on flanges with extra machining.They have modifications of radial tapped holes in the titanium flange ring for meter connections and orifice plate carriers for the reason of fitting meter connections.The additional bolts act as a jack to allow the separation of the two titanium flanges to change the orifice plate or for other inspection services.
A titanium socket weld flange is similar to titanium slip-on flanges, however, socket welds have an internal recess on the inside diameter to allow for a smoother flow of the process fluid. The positive of this is that is creates a smooth bore with the proper welding and grinding. The negative of this type of titanium flange is that it can be more expensive than a slip-on due to more intricate machining, and they can be less readily available than slip-ons due to the fact that the bottom half of the inside diameter must be made to the same schedule as the pipe that is being used. (you must specify the schedule needed) These titanium socket weld flanges were initially developed for use on smaller sizes of pipe at higher pressure ratings.
9. Titanium Plate flange
A titanium plate flange is a flat, circular disk that is welded onto the end of a steel pipe and allows it to be bolted to another pipe. Typically used in fuel and water pipelines, the two titanium flange plates will be bolted together with a gasket in between them. The titanium flange plate will have bolt holes all around the perimeter and will be used to create junctions, tees and joints.
Size of titanium flange
Titanium flange: 1/4″-160″, DN8-DN4000
Titanium flange Pressure-Temperature Class (Service Rating)
Titanium flange are classified as per their pressure-temperature ratings which are designated as 150#, 300#, 400#, 600#, 900#, 1500# and 2500#. Large diameter titanium flanges that is 24” to 60” are available up to 900# class. Pressure-temperature ratings are maximum allowable working gage pressures in the bar & the temperatures in degrees Celsius.
Higher the rating, heavier the titanium flange and can withstand higher pressure and temperature. When the temperature goes up, the pressure goes down, and vice versa. Please note that different material has different pressure ratings.
Titanium flange Facing Types
America Series: Flat face(FF),Raised face(RF),Tongue(T),Groove(G),Female(F),Male(M),Ring type joints face(RJ/RTJ)
Europe Series: Type A (Flat Face),Type B (Raised Face),Type C (Tongue),Type D (Groove),Type E (Spigot),Type F (Recess),Type G (O-Ring Spigot),Type H (O-Ring Groove)
Based On titanium flange facing Types, it can be further classified as:
- Flat Face (FF)
- Raised Face (RF)
- Ring Joint (RTJ)
- Tongue and groove (T&G)
- And Male and Female type
As name suggest, flat face flange has a flat face. Flat face flanges are used when the counter flanges are flat face. This condition occurs mainly on connection to Cast Iron equipments, valves and specialties. Full face gasket is used when flat face flange is used.
Raised face flange has small portion around the bore is raised from the face. The gasket seat on this raised face. The height of the raised face depends on the flange pressure temperature rating that is known as a class of the flange. For 150# & 300# height of the raised face is 1/6” and above 300# it is 1/4”. The inside bore circle type of gasket is used with raised face flange.
Ring joint type face flange has a specially designed grove in which metal gasket seat. This type of flange is used in high pressure and temperature services.
Serration on the flange Face
The flange face has small grooves as you can see in the image. This machining is known as a serration. Titanium flange face can be smooth or serrated type. Which type of face to use is depends on the type of the gasket and service of the fluid.
Smooth finish is used with metallic gasket whereas serrated finish is used with non-metallic gasket. Soft material of gaskets is set in this serration and prevent liquid or gas from passing from flange joint.
Serration can be spiral or concentric rings as you can see in the slide. Concentric rings type finishing is used when fluid is of very low density. If you use spiral type finish with very low density fluid, it may find leakage path through the spiral cavity.
Serration of flange face is specified in RMS (Root Mean Square) or AARH (Arithmetic Average Rough Height), the most common value of serrated face is 120-250 AARH. Comparator gauge is used to check serration of the titanium flange. In the image, you can see the how gauge is used to verify the value of serration.
Material of titanium flanges
The ASTM International standard on titanium and titanium alloy seamless pipe references the following alloys, requiring the following treatment:
“Alloys may be supplied in the following conditions: Grades 5, 23, 24, 25, 29, 35, or 36 annealed or aged; Grades 9, 18, 28, or 38 cold-worked and stress-relieved or annealed; Grades 9, 18, 23, 28, or 29 transformed-beta condition; and Grades 19, 20, or 21 solution-treated or solution-treated and aged.”
“Note 1—H grade material is identical to the corresponding numeric grade (that is, Grade 2H = Grade 2) except for the higher guaranteed minimum UTS, and may always be certified as meeting the requirements of its corresponding numeric grade. Grades 2H, 7H, 16H, and 26H are intended primarily for pressure vessel use.”
“The H grades were added in response to a user association request based on its study of over 5200 commercial Grade 2, 7, 16, and 26 test reports, where over 99% met the 58 ksi minimum UTS.”
Grade 1 is the most ductile and softest titanium alloy. It is a good solution for cold forming and corrosive environments. ASTM/ASME SB-265 provides the standards for commercially pure titanium sheet and plate.
Unalloyed titanium, standard oxygen.
Unalloyed titanium (Grade 2 with 58 ksi minimum UTS).
Unalloyed titanium, medium oxygen.
Grades 1-4 are unalloyed and considered commercially pure or “CP”. Generally the tensile and yield strength goes up with grade number for these “pure” grades. The difference in their physical properties is primarily due to the quantity of interstitial elements. They are used for corrosion resistance applications where cost, ease of fabrication, and welding are important.
Grade 5 also known as Ti6Al4V, Ti-6Al-4V or Ti 6-4l
Not to be confused with Ti-6Al-4V-ELI (Grade 23), is the most commonly used alloy. It has a chemical composition of 6% aluminum, 4% vanadium, 0.25% (maximum) iron, 0.2% (maximum) oxygen, and the remainder titanium. It is significantly stronger than commercially pure titanium (grades 1-4) while having the same stiffness and thermal properties (excluding thermal conductivity, which is about 60% lower in Grade 5 Ti than in CP Ti). Among its many advantages, it is heat treatable. This grade is an excellent combination of strength, corrosion resistance, weld and fabricability.
“This alpha-beta alloy is the workhorse alloy of the titanium industry. The alloy is fully heat treatable in section sizes up to 15 mm and is used up to approximately 400 °C (750 °F). Since it is the most commonly used alloy – over 70% of all alloy grades melted are a sub-grade of Ti6Al4V, its uses span many aerospace airframe and engine component uses and also major non-aerospace applications in the marine, offshore and power generation industries in particular.”
“Applications: Blades, discs, rings, airframes, fasteners, components. Vessels, cases, hubs, forgings. Biomedical implants.”
Generally, Ti-6Al-4V is used in applications up to 400 degrees Celsius. It has a density of roughly 4420 kg/m3, Young’s modulus of 120 GPa, and tensile strength of 1000 MPa. By comparison, annealed type 316 stainless steel has a density of 8000 kg/m3, modulus of 193 GPa, and tensile strength of 570 MPa. Tempered 6061 aluminium alloy has a density of 2700 kg/m3, modulus of 69 GPa, and tensile strength of 310 MPa, respectively.
Ti-6Al-4V standard specifications include:
- AMS: 4911, 4928, 4965, 4967, 6930, 6931, T-9046, T9047
- ASTM: B265, B348, F1472
- MIL: T9046 T9047
- DMS: 1592, 1570
contains 5% aluminium and 2.5% tin. It is also known as Ti-5Al-2.5Sn. This alloy is used in airframes and jet engines due to its good weldability, stability and strength at elevated temperatures.
contains 0.12 to 0.25% palladium. This grade is similar to Grade 2. The small quantity of palladium added gives it enhanced crevice corrosion resistance at low temperatures and high pH.
is identical to Grade 7 with enhanced corrosion resistance.
contains 3.0% aluminium and 2.5% vanadium. This grade is a compromise between the ease of welding and manufacturing of the “pure” grades and the high strength of Grade 5. It is commonly used in aircraft tubing for hydraulics and in athletic equipment.
contains 0.12 to 0.25% palladium. This grade has enhanced corrosion resistance.
contains 0.3% molybdenum and 0.8% nickel.
Grades 13, 14, and 15
all contain 0.5% nickel and 0.05% ruthenium.
contains 0.04 to 0.08% palladium. This grade has enhanced corrosion resistance.
contains 0.04 to 0.08% palladium.
contains 0.04 to 0.08% palladium. This grade has enhanced corrosion resistance.
contains 3% aluminium, 2.5% vanadium and 0.04 to 0.08% palladium. This grade is identical to Grade 9 in terms of mechanical characteristics. The added palladium gives it increased corrosion resistance.
contains 3% aluminium, 8% vanadium, 6% chromium, 4% zirconium, and 4% molybdenum.
contains 3% aluminium, 8% vanadium, 6% chromium, 4% zirconium, 4% molybdenum and 0.04% to 0.08% palladium.
contains 15% molybdenum, 3% aluminium, 2.7% niobium, and 0.25% silicon.
Grade 23 also known as Ti-6Al-4V-ELI or TAV-ELI
contains 6% aluminium, 4% vanadium, 0.13% (maximum) Oxygen. ELI stands for Extra Low Interstitial. Reduced interstitial elements oxygen and iron improve ductility and fracture toughness with some reduction in strength. TAV-ELI is the most commonly used medical implant-grade titanium alloy.
Ti-6Al-4V-ELI standard specifications include:
- AMS: 4907, 4930, 6932, T9046, T9047
- ASTM: B265, B348, F136
- MIL: T9046 T9047
contains 6% aluminium, 4% vanadium and 0.04% to 0.08% palladium.
contains 6% aluminium, 4% vanadium and 0.3% to 0.8% nickel and 0.04% to 0.08% palladium.
Grades 26, 26H, and 27
all contain 0.08 to 0.14% ruthenium.
contains 3% aluminium, 2.5% vanadium and 0.08 to 0.14% ruthenium.
contains 6% aluminium, 4% vanadium and 0.08 to 0.14% ruthenium.
Grades 30 and 31
contain 0.3% cobalt and 0.05% palladium.
contains 5% aluminium, 1% tin, 1% zirconium, 1% vanadium, and 0.8% molybdenum.
Grades 33 and 34
contain 0.4% nickel, 0.015% palladium, 0.025% ruthenium, and 0.15% chromium.
contains 4.5% aluminium, 2% molybdenum, 1.6% vanadium, 0.5% iron, and 0.3% silicon.
contains 45% niobium.
contains 1.5% aluminium.
contains 4% aluminium, 2.5% vanadium, and 1.5% iron. This grade was developed in the 1990s for use as an armor plating. The iron reduces the amount of Vanadium needed as a beta stabilizer. Its mechanical properties are very similar to Grade 5, but has good cold workability similar to grade 9.
Titanium flange Pressure-Temperature Class (Service Rating)
Titanium flange are classified as per their pressure-temperature ratings which are designated as 150#, 300#, 400#, 600#, 900#, 1500# and 2500#. Large diameter flanges that is 24” to 60” are available up to 900# class. Pressure-temperature ratings are maximum allowable working gage pressures in the bar & the temperatures in degrees Celsius.
Higher the rating, heavier the flange and can withstand higher pressure and temperature. When the temperature goes up, the pressure goes down, and vice versa. Please note that different material has different pressure ratings.
Standards of titanium flanges
- ASME ANSI B16.5,
- AWWA C207
- MSS SP 44
- CSA Z245.12
- DIN2573 ,DIN2576,DIN2501,DIN2502.
- BS1560,BS 4504,BS 10.
- AFNOR NF E29-200-1
- JIS B2220
- UNI 2276. UNI 2277.UNI 2278 .UNI 6089 .UNI 6090
How to make flanges and forgings step by step?
We manufacture flanges and high performance forgings from a variety of materials such as carbon steel, stainless steel, duplex-super duplex, inconel, titanium and other specialty alloys.Yaang’s high performance flanges and forgings are designed and manufactured to withstand some of the harshest conditions. We guarantee their durability in specialized industries such as oil and gas, petrochemical, energy and mineral refining.
When you order flanges and forgings from Hertecant, you can be sure they will be of exceptional quality, customizable, or meet a wide range of standards.
- Production Planning→Sawing→Forging→Heat treatment→Machining→Flange marking→Flange Inspection→Packaging
Step 1: Production Planning
First, we thoroughly analyze your order. What material should the flanges or forgings be made of? What dimensions and tolerances should they have? What is the weight of the forgings? What tooling should we use? What tests should be done? Based on all this information, we inform the quality department, the sawing, forging and machine shops so that our professionals know exactly what they need to deliver.
Step 2: Sawing
Either we start using the metal you deliver, or we provide the right raw material ourselves. In any case, we always use materials of guaranteed European quality. As you can see in the video, we first see or cut the required parts.
Step 3: Forging
Before forging, we heat the metal to the correct forging temperature required by the standard. Then, we give it its general shape with our ring tumbler or forging hammer and a suitable die. After that, the metal is cooled in water or air.
At Yaang, we are always looking to optimize our process, which is why we design and manufacture our own stamps for different references that are forged on our printing lines. The forging process starts by heating the raw material according to the type of steel and then cutting the workpiece. It is then transferred to a press, where it is mechanically deformed until the desired shape is obtained. In this operation, the material changes its internal structure by applying a compressive force, which gives the characteristic grain texture of the forging process and positively influences the mechanical properties of the forged blank.
Step 4: Heat treatment
In the next stage, the original forged material is transferred to our heat treatment facility, where we subject the product to drastic temperature changes, thus being able to alter the internal structure of the steel without changing its chemical composition and improving its mechanical properties. The main variables in this step are temperature and time, and the recipe varies with the type of steel and the desired final properties. The equipment we use in this process consists mainly of gas furnaces and chilled water baths.
The mechanical properties of the final product are achieved through forging and heat treatment processes. Once these are completed, we perform destructive testing to ensure that the proper standards are met before machining the part.
Step 5: Machining
Once the metal has cooled down, it does not yet have an exact shape or size. Therefore, we continue to machine the forgings using CNC lathes and drilling centers. This is done until the part meets the required standard or your technical drawings are perfect. In the third stage, the machining stage, the final dimensions of the part are obtained by a subtractive process in the turning and drilling operation. We mark each material individually with all the information required by the applicable standards and then complete the manufacturing process by applying a rust-protective paint to all materials containing iron.
In the final stage before the material is shipped, we perform a series of non-destructive tests to identify any surface or internal defects in the part, followed by an external and dimensional inspection. In this way, we guarantee the quality of our products according to the technical specifications applicable to each case. Traceability is guaranteed at each stage of our manufacturing process through intelligent production terminals, and quality is assured by applying the appropriate handling methods and standards at each stage.
Step 6: Flange marking
It’s time to make the necessary markings on the flange. The outer diameter is marked with the technical properties, including the material grade. Again, we strictly adhere to the required standards or your wishes as a customer. You can learn how we mark flanges in the video.
Following shall be marked on flange body:
- Manufacturer logo
- ASTM material code
- Material Grade
- Service rating (Pressure-temperature Class))
- Thickness (Schedule)
- Heat No
- Special marking if any QT (Quenched and tempered) or W (Repair by welding)
Step 7: Flange Inspection
Throughout the production process, we closely monitor quality. But before we pack them, there is a final quality check. If necessary, we use a digital measuring arm to check that the dimensions remain within the allowed tolerances. At the same time, we verify the material by PMI testing.
Following to be confirmed during inspection of titanium flange:
- Outer & Inner Diameter of body
- Bolt Circle & Bolt hole Diameter
- Hub Diameter & thickness of weld end
- Length of the Hub
- Straightness and alignment of the bolt hole
Permissible tolerances are given in B16.5 and B16.47 standard.
Step 8: Packaging
Once the flanges and forgings meet the exact requirements, we can start the shipping process. Our logistics department carefully packs the flanges so that they are intact. It also takes care of the packaging instructions and material certificates. We then load the boxes or pallets onto trucks for quick delivery anywhere in the world.
Application for titanium flanges
Natural gas, chemical, petroleum, ship building, marine, paper making, metallurgy, electric, power, boiler, etc.
Source: Network Arrangement – China Titanium flange Manufacturer – Yaang Pipe Industry Co., Limited (www.titaniuminfogroup.com)
(Yaang Pipe Industry is a leading manufacturer and supplier of nickel alloy and stainless steel products, including Super Duplex Stainless Steel Titanium flanges, Stainless Steel Titanium flanges, Stainless Steel Pipe Fittings, Stainless Steel Pipe. Yaang products are widely used in Shipbuilding, Nuclear power, Marine engineering, Petroleum, Chemical, Mining, Sewage treatment, Natural gas and Pressure vessels and other industries.)
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