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Analysis of forging process properties of common titanium alloys

Forging process performance data of common titanium alloys

According to theoretical research and factory production experience, the forging process performance data of α – type, near – α type, α + β type and near – β type titanium alloys are summarized in Tables 1 to 6 respectively.
It can be seen from the data in Table 1 to table 6 that the blooming temperature of most titanium alloy ingots is in the range of 1150 ℃ – 1200 ℃, and the initial forging temperature of some titanium alloy ingots is in the range of 1050 ℃ – 1100 ℃; these two temperature regions are in the β phase region, and the former is much higher than the phase transformation temperature. There are two reasons: first, the alloy has high plasticity and low deformation resistance in the β phase region Long forging time is conducive to improving productivity; second, the billet for ingot opening is mainly used for forging, and its microstructure can be improved after forging with large deformation degree, which will not affect the properties of forgings, so the process with high productivity is selected.
It can be seen from the data in Table 1 to table 6 that the initial forging temperature of die forging on the press is not only much lower than the initial forging temperature of ingot opening, but also lower than the α / β transformation temperature by 30 ℃ – 50 ℃. The forging temperature of most titanium alloys is in the range of 930 ℃ – 970 ℃. This is to ensure the deformation in the α + β phase region and obtain the required microstructure and properties of forgings. The forging temperature of the finished product can be increased by 10 ℃~ 20 ℃ compared with that of the press forging. However, in order to ensure the microstructure and mechanical properties of the finished titanium alloy forgings, the final forging temperature of the forging process should be controlled in the α + β two-phase region.
It can also be seen from the data in Tables 1 to 6 that the initial forging temperature of most titanium alloys is slightly higher than or near the transformation temperature. The initial α / β forging temperature of transition processes such as pre forming is lower than that of ingot opening and higher than that of die forging. In this temperature zone, the productivity is taken into account and the blank with better microstructure is prepared for forging.

Table.1 forging process performance data of α – type titanium alloy

Alloy grade Phase transition temperature / ℃ Forging temperature range / ℃ Allowable deformation degree /%
Industrial pure titanium α→β:885~900 Ingot opening: 1050-650 40~50
Preform: 950-650 30~40
Die forging: 950 ~ 650 30~40
TA7 α→α﹢β:930~970            β→α﹢β:1040~1090 Ingot opening: 1180 ~ 900 30~50
Preform: 1100 ~ 850 40~70
Hammer forging: 1100 ~ 900 40~70
Die forging on press: 1020 ~ 850 40~70
TA13 α﹢β→β:895±10 Ingot opening: 1050 ~ 750 30~5
Preform: 950-700  40~70
Hammer forging: 880 ~ 700 40~70
Ring rolling: 860 ~ 650 40~70
TA16 α﹢β→β:920±20 Ingot opening: 1180 900 40~5
Preform: 1100 850 50~60 
Hammer forging: 1100 900 50~70
Die forging on press: 1020 850 50~70
Plate rolling: 1050 800 50~70
Tube piercing and hot rolling: 1120 800 50~70

Table 2 forging process performance data of near α titanium alloy

Alloy grade Phase transition temperature / ℃ Forging temperature range / ℃ Allowable deformation degree /%
TA11 α﹢β→β:1040
Ingot opening: 1190 900

Preform: 1000-800
Die forging: 1000 800

30~50
30~60
30~60

TA12 α﹢β→β:940±20
Ingot opening: 1200 900

Preform: 1040-850
Hammer forging: 1040 800

Die forging on press: 1030 800

30~50
30~55
30~55
30~55
TA15 α﹢β→β:1020±30
Ingot opening: 1180 900

Preform: 1080-900
Hammer forging: 1020 900

Die forging on press: 1000 900

20~30
40~50
40~50
40~50
TA18 β→α﹢β:925±10
Ingot opening: 1050 ~ 750
Preform: 950-750
Die forging: 900-700
50~70
50~70
40~50
TA19 α﹢β→β:990±30
Ingot opening: 1150 ~ 850
Preform: 1000-800
Hammer forging: 980 800

Die forging on press: 950 800

30~60
40~70
40~70
40~70
TC1 α﹢β→β:920~930
Ingot opening: 1150 ~ 850
Preform: 1000-850
Hammer forging: 950 800

Die forging on press: 910 750

30~60
40~70
40~70
40~70
TC2 α﹢β→β:940±20
Ingot blooming: 1080 850

Preform: 980-800
Hammer forging: 950 800

Die forging on press: 930 750

30~50
40~70
40~70
40~70

Table 3 forging process performance data of α + β titanium alloy

Alloy grade Phase transition temperature / ℃ Forging temperature range / ℃ Allowable deformation degree /%
TC4 α﹢β→β: 980~1010 Ingot opening: 1200 ~ 850 30~60
Preform: 1000-800 40~70
Hammer forging: 980 ~ 800 40~70
Die forging on press: 950 ~ 800 40~70
TC6 α﹢β→β:980±20 Ingot opening: 1150 ~ 850 30~60
Preform: 1050-800 40~70
Hammer forging: 950 ~ 800 40~70
Die forging on press: 950 ~ 800 40~70
Isothermal extrusion: 940
TC11 α﹢β→β:1000±20 Ingot opening: 1200 ~ 900 30~60
Preform: 980-800 40~65
Hammer forging: 980 ~ 850 40~65
Die forging on press: 970 ~ 800 40~65
TC16 α﹢β→β:860±20 Ingot opening: 1150 ~ 850 30~60
Preform: 1000-850 40~70
Die forging: 950 ~ 700 40~70
Rotary forging: 820 ~ 650 10~20
TC17 α﹢β→β:890±15 Ingot opening: 1100 ~ 800 50~70
α + β die forging: 845 ~ 700 30~50
Die forging on press: 950 ~ 800 β area: 40 ~ 60
α + β region: 20 ~ 40
TC18 β→α﹢β:750±10 Ingot opening: 1180 ~ 850 30~50
Preform: 1020-800 40~70
Hammer forging: 950 ~ 800 40~70
Die forging on press: 840 ~ 750 20~50
Extrusion and rolling: 1050 ~ 750 20~60

Table 4 forging process performance data of near beta titanium alloy

Alloy Phase transition temperature / ℃ Forging temperature range / ℃ Allowable deformation degree /% Superplastic temperature / ℃
TB2 α﹢β→β: 730~750 Ingot opening: 1150 ~ 850 30~60 Plate 750
TB3 α→β﹢β:750±10 Ingot opening: 1150 ~ 850 30~60
Change of blank to forging: 1050 ~ 800 40~70
Rotary forging: 760-600 10~30
TB5 α﹢β→β:750~770 Ingot opening: 1150 ~ 850 30~6 Plate 750~800
Change of blank to forging: 1050 ~ 800 40~65
Rotary forging: 740 ~ 600 10~20
TB6 α﹢β→β:800±15 Ingot opening: 1150 ~ 850 50~7 770
Preform: 840-700 40~60
Hammer forging: 800 ~ 680 40~50
Die forging on press: 780 ~ 680 40~60
Isothermal die forging: 780 ~ 760 30~50
Note: in α + β deformation

Table 5 forging process performance data of α – type titanium alloy

Type Grade Thermal conductivity / M-1 ·℃ – 1 Type GradeThermal conductivity / M-1 ·℃ – 1 Type Grade Thermal conductivity / M-1 ·℃ – 1
Alpha type Industrial pure titanium 20℃/19.3    800℃/18.4 Near alpha type TC1 20℃/19.3     800℃/18.4 Near beta type TB2 20℃/19.3     800℃/18.4
TA7 20℃/19.3    800℃/18.4 TC2 20℃/19.3     800℃/18.4 TB3 20℃/19.3     800℃/18.4
TA13 20℃/19.3    800℃/18.4 α + β type TC4 20℃/19.3     800℃/18.4 TB5 20℃/19.3     800℃/18.4
TA16 20℃/19.3     800℃/18.43 TC6 20℃/19.3      800℃/18.43 Carbon steel 20 20℃/19.3     800℃/18.43
Near alpha type TA11 20℃/19.3     800℃/18.4 TC11 20℃/19.3     800℃/18.4 45 20℃/19.3     800℃/18.4
TA12 20℃/19.3     800℃/18.4 TC16 20℃/19.3     800℃/18.4 Carburizing steel 12Cr2Ni4A 20℃/19.3     800℃/18.4
TA15 20℃/19.3      800℃/18.4 TC17 20℃/19.3     800℃/18.4 Bearing steel GCr15 20℃/19.3     800℃/18.4
TA18 20℃/19.3     800℃/18.4 TC18 20℃/19.3     800℃/18.4 Quenched and tempered high strength steel 40CrNiMoA 20℃/19.3     800℃/18.4
TA19 20℃/19.3      800℃/18.4 Near beta type TB6 20℃/19.3     800℃/18.4 Ultra high strength steel 40CrNi2Si2MoVA 20℃/19.3     800℃/18.4

Table 6 heating and holding time of titanium alloy billets

Maximum thickness or diameter of blank / mm Time from temperature rise to initial forging temperature after billet is put into furnace (no more than) / mm Holding time / min Residence time of billet in furnace (no more than) / h
() (≤)
10 5 10 50 1
15 8 12 50 1
20 10 15 50 1
25 10 15 50 1
30 10 15 50 1
35 15 20 60 1
40 15 20 60 1
50 15 25 60 1
60 15 30 60 1.5
80 15 35 75 2
100 20 45 75 2
120 20 50 90 2
140 25 55 90 2
160 25 60 120 2.5
180 30 70 120 2.5
200 30 80 120 2.5
225 35 90 150 3
250 35 100 150 3
300 40 120 210 4
350 40 130 210 4
400 50 160 240 4.5
Note: the billet with large cross-section is best to be heated in sections, that is, preheating to 800  before heating in the high-temperature zone of the heating furnace or in another high-temperature furnace

Source: China Titanium Pipe Fittings Manufacturer – Yaang Pipe Industry Co., Limited (www.steeljrv.com)

(Yaang Pipe Industry is a leading manufacturer and supplier of nickel alloy and stainless steel products, including Super Duplex Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Flanges, Stainless Steel Pipe Fittings, Stainless Steel Pipe. Yaang products are widely used in Shipbuilding, Nuclear power, Marine engineering, Petroleum, Chemical, Mining, Sewage treatment, Natural gas and Pressure vessels and other industries.)

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analysis of corrosion resistance of titanium pipe and titanium alloy pipe in chemical industry petroleum industry and metallurgy industry - Analysis of forging process properties of common titanium alloys
Article Name
Analysis of forging process properties of common titanium alloys
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Forging process performance data of common titanium alloys: according to theoretical research and factory production experience, the forging process performance data of α - type, near - α type, α + β type and near - β type titanium alloys are summarized in Tables 1 to 6 respectively.
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